Quotes on Character

I have been well-acquainted with [President Gordon B. Hinckley] since my early youth and have observed firsthand that the fabric of his noble character contains not a single shoddy thread. — Elder Joseph B. Wirthlin, Ensign, May 1995, p. 20

The Lord works from the inside out.  The world works from the outside in.  The world would take people out of the slums.  Christ takes the slums out of people, and then they take themselves out of the slums.  The world would mold men by changing their environment.  Christ changes men, who then change their environment.  The world would shape human behavior, but Christ can change human nature. — President Ezra Taft Benson, Ensign, November 1985, p. 6

Your soul is nourished by all your experiences.  It gives you baggage for the future – and ammunition, if you like. — Actress Audrey Hepburn

My husband tells of an experience he had in medical school.

It is very difficult to get into medical school, and as you might guess, freshmen students are committed to work very hard.  My husband said he still remembers going to his first examination at the University of Utah Medical School.  The honor system was in place.  As the professor passed out the examination and left the room, some classmates started to pull out little cheat papers from their pockets and from under their books.  “My heart began to pound as I realized how difficult it is to compete with cheaters,” my husband says.

Then a tall, thin student stood up in the back of the room and said, “I left my home and put my wife and three little children in an upstairs apartment to go to medical school.  I’ll turn in the first one of you who cheats and YOU BETTER BELIEVE IT!”  They believed it.  Those cheat papers disappeared as fast as they had appeared.  That young man set a standard of hard work and cooperation instead of dishonesty.  He cared more about character than popularity.

When I heard the name of J. Ballard Washburn to be sustained as a member of the Quorum of Seventy, I remembered he was that medical student.  Whether or not J. B. had been called to be a general authority, I realized his name would have been known for good wherever he was.  He had developed character! — Janette C. Hales, Young Women’s General President, The New Era, November 1993, p. 48

Each one is the architect of his own fate, and he is unfortunate, indeed, who will try to build himself without the inspiration of God, without realizing that he grows from within, not from without. . . .

What a man continually thinks about determines his actions in times of opportunity and stress.  A man’s reaction to his appetites and impulses when they are aroused gives the measure of that man’s character.  In these reactions are revealed the man’s power to govern or his forced servility to yield.  (Pres. David O. McKay, Gospel Ideals.) — Church News, March 4, 1995, p. 14

We do not know a nation until we know its pleasures of life, just as we do not know a man until we know how he spends his leisure.  It is when a man ceases to do the things he has to do, and does the things he likes to do, that the character is revealed. — Yutang, Chinese Philosopher

There is no better test of someone’s character than their behavior when they are wrong. — Anonymous

Day by day, hour by hour, man builds the character that will determine his place and standing among his associates throughout the ages. . . . More important than riches, more enduring than fame, more precious than happiness is the possession of a noble character.  Truly it has been said that the grand aim of man’s creation is the development of a grand character, and grand character is by its very nature the product of a probationary discipline.  (“Man’s Soul Is As Endless As Time,” Instructor, Jan. 1960, 1-2.) — President David O. McKay, “Developing Character,” Ensign, October 2001, p. 23

True happiness is found in living the Christ’s life – on Monday as well as on Sunday.  He who is virtuous only at intervals proves that his pretended virtue is but a sham.  Such a person lacks sincerity, the foundation of true character, without which happiness is impossible.  (Gospel Ideals, 502.) — President David O. McKay, “Developing Character,” Ensign, October 2001, p. 23

What is the crowning glory of man in this earth so far as his individual achievement is concerned?  It is character – character developed through obedience to the laws of life as revealed through the Gospel of Jesus Christ, who came that we might have life and have it more abundantly.  Man’s chief concern in life should not be the acquiring of gold nor fame nor material possessions.  It should not be the development of physical prowess nor of intellectual strength, but his aim, the highest in life, should be the development of a Christlike character.  (“Obedience Develops Character,” Instructor, Aug. 1965, 301.) — President David O. McKay, “Developing Character,” Ensign, October 2001, p. 23

The true measure of a man is how he spends his time when he doesn’t have to do anything. — Quoted by Robert L. Simpson, “Pollution of the Mind,” Ensign, Jan. 1973, p. 113

Abraham Lincoln said: “I am not bound to win, but I am bound to be true.  I am not bound to succeed, but I am bound to live up to what light I have.”  Lincoln is remembered for what he did but also for what he was – a forthright man of integrity. — Elder L. Tom Perry, “Staying Power,” Ensign, July 2003, p. 43

Brigham Young said: “Simple truth, simplicity, honesty, uprightness, justice, mercy, love, kindness, do good to all and evil to none, how easy it is to live by such principles!  A thousand times easier than to practice deception!” — Elder L. Tom Perry, “Staying Power,” Ensign, July 2003, p. 43

Man’s chief concern in life should not be the acquiring of gold or of fame or of material possessions.  It should not be the development of physical prowess nor of intellectual strength, but his aim – the highest in life – should be the development of Christlike character. — President David O. McKay, quoted by Robert E. Wells, “In God We Trust,” BYU Devotional, June 29, 1982, p. 7

What you sincerely in your heart think of Christ will determine what you are and will largely determine what your acts will be.  (Pres. David O. McKay) — Robert R. Steuer, “Come unto Christ,” Ensign, December 2004, pp. 12-13

“Whether you believe you can do a thing or not, you are right.”   — Henry Ford

Some people want to homogenize society everywhere.  I’m against homogenization in art, in politics, in every walk of life.  I want the cream to rise.  — Robert Frost

A moral coward is one who is afraid to do what he thinks is right because others will disapprove or laugh.  Remember that all men have their fears, but those who face their fears with dignity have courage as well. — President Thomas S. Monson, “The Call for Courage,” Ensign, May 2004, p. 54

Military Academy at West Point on 5/7/10, “The world needs incorruptible men and women,” Church News, May 15, 2010, p. 3

 It is in commitment to true principles, combined with self-discipline, that true greatness lies.  Consider the following statement by President N. Eldon Tanner:

“I should like to say a few words about self-discipline, self-control, or self-mastery which is so important to all of us if we are to accomplish what we set out to do and enjoy the blessings which we desire so much.

“First, I should like to quote some of the philosophers.

“Plato said:  ‘The first and best victory is to conquer self; to be conquered by self is, of all things, the most shameful and vile.’

“And da Vinci once said:  ‘You will never have a greater or lesser dominion than that over yourself.’

Then he goes on to say that ‘the height of a man’s success is gauged by his self-mastery; the depth of his failure by his self-abandonment. . . . And this law is the expression of eternal justice.  He who cannot establish dominion over himself will have no dominion over others.’  In other words, he cannot be a worthy father or leader.

“Solomon in all his wisdom made this meaningful statement:  ‘He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city.’ (Prov. 16:32.)

“There are two important elements in self-mastery.  The first is to determine your course or set the sails, so to speak, of moral standards; the other is the willpower, or the wind in the sails carrying one forward.  As I said before, character is determined by the extent to which we can master ourselves toward good ends.  It is difficult to say just what builds good character, but we know it when we see it.  It always commands our admiration, and the absence of it our pity.  But it is largely a matter of willpower.”  (“Success Is Gauged by Self-Mastery,” Ensign, May 1975, p. 75.) Old Testament Student Manuel, p. 263-64 

Faith and character are intimately related.  Faith in the power of obedience to the commandments of God will forge strength of character available to you in times of urgent need.  Such character is not developed in moments of great challenge or temptation.  That is when it is intended to be used.  Your exercise of faith in true principles builds character; fortified character expands your capacity to exercise more faith.  As a result, your capacity and confidence to conquer the trials of life is enhanced.  The more your character is fortified, the more enabled you are to benefit from exercising the power of faith.  You will discover how faith and character interact to strengthen one another.  Character is woven patiently from threads of applied principle, doctrine, and obedience. . . .

We become what we want to be by consistently being what we want to become each day.  Righteous character is a precious manifestation of what you are becoming.  Righteous character is more valuable than any material object you own, any knowledge you have gained through study, or any goals you have attained no matter how well lauded by mankind. In the next life your righteous character will be evaluated to assess how well you used the privilege of mortality.

Neither Satan nor any other power can destroy or undermine your growing character. Only you could do that through disobedience. A sterling character is converted into worthless ashes when eroded by deceit or transgression.

Strong moral character results from consistent correct choices in the trials and testing of life.  Such choices are made with trust in things that are believed and when acted upon are confirmed. — Elder Richard G. Scott, “The Transforming Power of Faith and Character,” Ensign, Nov. 2010, p. 43

The bedrock of character is integrity.  Worthy character will strengthen your capacity to recognize the direction of the Spirit and to be obedient to it. Your consistent exercise of faith builds strong character. A secure foundation for your growing character is laid by making Jesus Christ and His teachings the center of your life. . . .

Material things do not of themselves produce happiness and satisfaction and the joy of attainment on earth.  Nor do they lead us to exaltation.  It is nobility of character, that fabric of inner strength and conviction woven from countless righteous decisions, that gives life its direction.  A consistent, righteous life produces an inner power and strength that can be permanently resistant to the eroding influence of sin and transgression.  Your faith in Jesus Christ and obedience to His commandments will strengthen your character.  Your character is a measure of what you are becoming.  It is the evidence of how well you are using your time on earth in this period of mortal probation.

An axiom we all understand is that you get what you pay for.  That is true for spiritual matters as well.  You get what you pay for in obedience, in faith in Jesus Christ, in diligent application of the truths you learn.  What you get is the molding of character, the growth in capacity, and the successful completion of your mortal purpose to be proven and to have joy.

You cannot be passive in life, or in time the natural man will undermine your efforts to live worthily.  You become what you do and what you think about. — Elder Richard G. Scott, “The Transforming Power of Faith and Character,” Ensign, Nov. 2010, p. 43-46 [Italics added]

“God uses your faith to mold your character,” Elder Richard G. Scott said.  “Character is woven patiently from threads of doctrine, principle and obedience.  Character is the manifestation of what you are becoming.  Your character will be the yardstick that God will use to determine how well you have used your mortal life.

“Strong character is more important than what you own, what you have learned, or what goals you have accomplished. Your consistent exercise of faith builds strong character.  In turn, fortified confidence in conquering the trials of life.”

Elder Scott shared ten specific points to help individuals to successfully developing their character and find joy in life.

    1.  Establish a set of principles to guide every aspect of life – home, church service, profession and community.

“Many people try to compartmentalize their lives and have a standard for Church, another standard for what they do in business, and in other aspects of their life.  I very strongly counsel you not to do that.  There really is only one set of standards that make sense.  Those are the teachings of Jesus Christ which signal to us the importance of faith, service, obedience and integrity.”

   2.  Don’t make exceptions to your standards.  “Never compromise them.  Be loyal to the teachings that you have received here and have received from your parents. They are the things of greatest worth. . . . If you integrate that with what you know about the teachings of the Lord, examples of those worthy people who are role models to you, you will have a solid foundation and you will be productive and do things that are worthwhile for others.”

    3. Be loyal.  Elder Scott said that individuals must be loyal to the BYU campus, parents, loved ones and above all, the Savior.  “Success comes when your actions are consistent with the teachings of the Lord.  When you seek work find someone who challenges you, who raises you to higher levels of performance.”

    4. Live so that the Lord can guide you to where He wants you to serve.  “Let the Lord guide you.  He an do that if you live His commandments worthily and strive in every way to be obedient to His teachings.”

    5. Serve others.  “Sharing what you know with others will bring you happiness and bless their lives.”

    6. Smile.  “You will soon learn that everybody has problems and nobody wants to hear about yours.  When you put those things aside and smile, have a good sense of humor as the prophets do. . . . A sense of humor helps you greatly.”

    7. Don’t complain.  “Life isn’t always fair.  That’s a fact.  But it’s always charged with marvelous opportunities if you know how to find them.”

    8. Always have a church assignment.  “Wherever you go in the world, wherever the Lord takes you, always offer your service to the presiding authority.  Leave it to that authority to decide where and how.  Be connected with the things of God and the ways to serve Him.”

     9. Go to the temple.  “Carry a current temple recommend. . . . It will keep you spiritually in tune, will allow you to remember the most important things of life and encourage you to give great service to others.”

    10. Use the Savior, Jesus Christ as your example for life.  “Use His teachings as your handbook for life.  Never make exceptions to them. “

As individuals follow these suggestions, they strengthen their foundation of faith and are more able to lead others to do the same.

 “Come to know of the great influence for good that flows from individual acts born of conscience and principle rooted in truth,” he said.  “Resolve that each moment of your life will reflect your determination to humbly be an example of righteousness, integrity and conviction.” — Marianne Holman, “Elder Richard G. Scott counsels BYU graduates,” Deseret News, April 22, 2011, p. B6

If any of us are imperfect, it is our duty to pray for the gift that will make us perfect. Have I imperfections?  I am full of them.  What is my duty?  To pray to God to give me the gifts that will correct these imperfections.  If I am an angry man, it is my duty to pray for charity, which suffereth long and is kind.  Am I an envious man?  It is my duty to seek for charity, which envieth not.  So with all the gifts of the Gospel.  They are intended for this purpose.  No man ought to say, “Oh, I cannot help this; it is my nature.”  He is not justified in it, for the reason that God has promised to give strength to correct these things, and to give gifts that will eradicate them. — President George Q. Cannon, Millennial Star, April 23, 1894, p. 260

Getting through the hazards of life requires understanding, skill, experience, and self-assurance like that required to sink a difficult basket under pressure.  In the game of life, that is called righteous character.  Such character is not developed in moments of great challenge or temptation.  That is when it is used.  Character is woven quietly from the threads of hundreds of correct decisions (like practice sessions).  When strengthened by obedience and worthy acts, correct decisions form a fabric of character that brings victory in time of great need.

Righteous character provides the foundation of spiritual strength that enables you to make difficult, extremely important decisions correctly when they seem overpowering.

Righteous character is what you are.  It is more important than what you own, what you have learned, or what you have accomplished.  It allows you to be trusted.  It opens the door to help from the Lord in moments of great challenge or temptation.

Be honest.  Righteous character is based on integrity. — Elder Richard G. Scott, “Trust in the Lord,” Ensign, May 1989, p. 35

Self-mastery is a challenge for every individual.  Only we can control our appetites and passions.  Self-mastery cannot be bought by money or fame.  It is the ultimate test of our character.  It requires climbing out of the deep valleys of our lives and scaling our own Mount Everests. — President James E. Faust, “The Power of Self-Mastery,” Ensign, May 2000, p. 43

Every time we have opportunity and fail to live up to that truth which is within us, every time we fail to express a good thought, every time we fail to perform a good act, we weaken ourselves, and make it more difficult to express that thought or perform that act in the future.  Every time we perform a good act, every time we express a noble feeling we make it the more easy to perform that act or express that feeling another time. — President David O. McKay, Conference Report, October 1906

Now, brethren and sisters, we learn from these scriptures that the name of God is very sacred, and that it ought not to be used lightly.  We have been told many times that even in our sermons it should not often be spoken, neither ought it to be used very much in our prayers.  If that be the case, what shall we say of the man, and particularly if he be a man holding the Priesthood, if he takes the name of the Lord in vain?  The Lord has said he shall not be held guiltless, he must answer for it.  You do not hear profanity everywhere, you do not hear it in all places, but now and then, in various sections of the Church, you will hear the name of the Lord profaned.  It is a great sin.  It is a serious evil and the man, (and I might say also the woman) who is guilty of this fault hath need of repentance. — Elder Rudger Clawson, General Conference, October 1920

Fame is vapor, popularity an accident, riches take wings.   Only one thing endures and that is character. — Horace Greeley

Good character is more to be praised than outstanding talent.  Most talents are, to some extent, a gift.  Good character, by contrast, is not given to us.  We have to build it, piece by piece – by thought, choice, courage and determination. — H. Jackson Brown

Brothers and sisters, Christ paid such an enormous, enabling price for us!  Will we not apply His Atonement in order to pay the much smaller price required for personal progress? (see Mosiah 4:2).  Being valiant in our testimony of Jesus, therefore, includes being valiant in our efforts to live more as He lived (see D&C 76:79).  We certainly cannot enter His kingdom without receiving the restored ordinances and keeping their associated covenants, but neither can we enter His kingdom without having significantly developed our charity and the other cardinal attributes (see Ether 12:34). Yes, we need the essential ordinances, but we also need the essential attributes.  Yes, we need to keep our covenants, but we also need to develop our character.  Do we not sing, ‘More holiness give me,’ pleading that we can be ‘more, Savior, like thee’?  (Hymns, no. 131).” — Elder Neal A. Maxwell, Ensign, November 1997, p. 22 

 There are two kinds of light – the glow that illuminates, and the glare that obscures. — James Thurber

Let us counsel with the Lord in all our undertakings.  Let us be better neighbors.  Let us be better employers and employees.  Let us be men and women of integrity and honesty in business, in education, in government, in the professions, whatever is our place in life. — President Gordon B. Hinckley, “Latter-day Saints in Very Deed,” Ensign, November 1997, p. 85

Moral discipline is the consistent exercise of agency to choose the right because it is right, even when it is hard.  It rejects the self-absorbed life in favor of developing character worthy of respect and true greatness through Christlike service (see Mark 10:42–45). — Elder D. Todd Christofferson, “Moral Discipline,” Ensign, November 2009, p. 105

If most of us are ashamed of shabby clothes and shoddy furniture, let us be more ashamed of shabby ideas and shoddy philosophies. . . . It would be a sad situation if the wrapper were better than the meat wrapped inside it. — Albert Einstein

Character cannot be developed in ease and quiet.  Only through experience of trial and suffering can the soul be strengthened, vision cleared, ambition inspired and success achieved. — Helen Keller

It is the highest form of self-respect to admit our errors and mistakes and make amends for them.  To make a mistake is only an error in judgment, but to adhere to it when it is discovered shows infirmity of character. — Dale Turner

Getting through the hazards of life requires understanding, skill, experience, and self-assurance like that required to sink a difficult basket under pressure.  In the game of life, that is called righteous character.  Such character is not developed in moments of great challenge or temptation.  That is when it is used.  Character is woven quietly from the threads of hundreds of correct decisions (like practice sessions).  When strengthened by obedience and worthy acts, correct decisions form a fabric of character that brings victory in time of great need.

Righteous character provides the foundation of spiritual strength that enables you to make difficult, extremely important decisions correctly when they seem overpowering.

Righteous character is what you are.  It is more important than what you own, what you have learned, or what you have accomplished.  It allows you to be trusted.  It opens the door to help from the Lord in moments of great challenge or temptation. — Elder Richard G. Scott, “Trust in the Lord,” Ensign, May 1989

We are not born into this world with fixed habits.  Neither do we inherit a noble character.  Instead, as children of God, we are given the privilege and opportunity of choosing which way of life we will follow – which habits we will form. . . .

Good habits are not acquired simply by making good resolves, though the thought must precede the action.  Good habits are developed in the workshop of our daily lives.  It is not in the great moments of test and trial that character is built.  That is only when it is displayed.  The habits that direct our lives and form our character are fashioned in the often uneventful, commonplace routine of life.  They are acquired by practice. — Elder Delbert L. Stapley, “Good Habits Develop Good Character,” Ensign, November 1974, p. 20

Excuses, no matter how valid, simply weakens one’s character. — Anonymous

Be such a man, and live such a life, that if every man were such as you, and every life a life like yours, this earth would be God’s paradise. — The Reverend Phillip Brooks

Honesty is the basis of a true Christian life.  For Latter-day Saints, honesty is an important requirement for entering the Lord’s holy temple.  Honesty is embedded in the covenants that we make in the temple.  Each Sunday as we partake of the holy emblems of the Savior’s flesh and blood, we again renew our basic and sacred covenants – which encompass honesty.  As Latter-day Saints we have a sacred obligation to not only teach the principles of honesty, but also to live them. . . . Honesty should be among the most fundamental values that govern our everyday living. 

When we are true to the sacred principles of honesty and integrity, we are true to our faith, and we are true to ourselves. — Elder Richard C. Edgley, Ensign, November 2006, p. 74

It is indeed remarkable that the nature of our dealings with our fellowmen will determine, in large measure, our status in the kingdom of heaven. . . . We may attend to rites and rituals and yet overlook the weightier matters such as brotherly kindness, honesty, mercy, virtue, and integrity.  Let us never forget that if we omit them from our lives we may be found unworthy to come into His presence. — Elder Mark E. Petersen, “Do Unto Others”, Ensign, May 1977, p. 73

Remember, a good attitude produces good results, a fair attitude fair results, a poor attitude poor results.  We each shape our own life, and the shape of it is determined largely by our attitude. — Elder M. Russell Ballard, “Providing for Our Needs,” Ensign May 1981, p. 85

Let us remember, too, that greatness is not always a matter of the scale of one’s life, but of the quality of one’s life.  True greatness is not always tied to the scope of our tasks, but to the quality of how we carry out our tasks whatever they are.  In that attitude, let us give our time, ourselves, and our talents to the things that really matter now, things which will still matter a thousand years from now. — President Spencer W. Kimball, “A Gift of Gratitude,” Tambuli, Dec 1977, p. 1

Jesus Christ, who by far suffered the most, has the most compassion – for all of us who suffer so much less.  Moreover, He who suffered the most has no self-pity!  Even as He endured the enormous suffering associated with the Atonement, He reached out to others in their much lesser suffering.  Consider how, in Gethsemane, Jesus, who had just bled at every pore, nevertheless restored an assailant’s severed ear which, given Jesus’ own agony, He might not have noticed!  (see Luke 22:50–51).

Consider how Jesus, while hanging so painfully on the cross, instructed the Apostle John about caring for Jesus’ mother, Mary (see John 19:26–27).  Consider how in the midst of the awful arithmetic of the Atonement, Jesus nevertheless reassured one of the thieves on the cross, “To day shalt thou be with me in paradise” (Luke 23:43).  He cared, even in the midst of enormous suffering.  He reached outwardly, when a lesser being would have turned inwardly.

 Jesus’ loving and discerning character is such that He gives customized counsel, taking into account our differing bearing capacities.  He healed 10 lepers, but only one returned to thank Him.  He didn’t chide that leper, whereas you and I sometimes unload on the undeserving.  Instead, He simply said, “Where are the nine?”  (Luke 17:17). — Elder Neal A. Maxwell, “Enduring Well,” Ensign, April 1997

Thoughts mold your features.  Thoughts lift your soul heavenward or drag you toward hell. . . . As nothing reveals character like the company we like and keep, so nothing foretells futurity like the thoughts over which we brood. . . . To have the approval of your conscience when you are alone with your thoughts is like being in the company of true and loving friends.  To merit your own self-respect gives strength to character.  Conscience is the link that binds your soul to the spirit of God. — President David O. McKay, “Developing Character,” Ensign, October 2001, p. 22

Honesty is the basis of a true Christian life.  For Latter-day Saints, honesty is an important requirement for entering the Lord’s holy temple.  Honesty is embedded in the covenants that we make in the temple.  Each Sunday as we partake of the holy emblems of the Savior’s flesh and blood, we again renew our basic and sacred covenants – which encompass honesty. As Latter-day Saints we have a sacred obligation to not only teach the principles of honesty, but also to live them. . . . Honesty should be among the most fundamental values that govern our everyday living. 

When we are true to the sacred principles of honesty and integrity, we are true to our faith, and we are true to ourselves. — Elder Richard C. Edgley, Ensign, November 2006, p. 4

If you were in possession of all the wealth in the world, it is not worth so much to you as your good characters.  Preserve them.  If you have a happy influence with your brethren and sisters, preserve it, for it is more choice than fine gold. — Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, 8:346

You breathe one breath at a time; each moment is set apart to its act, and each act to its moment.  It is the moments and the little acts that make the sum of the life of man.  Let every second, minute, hour, and day we live be spent in doing that which we know to be right. — Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, 3:342

The name of king or emperor has always sunk into insignificance when I contrasted it with the character of a man of God – of a person who holds the destinies of men in his hands, and can dispense them to the people.  Such a man should preserve himself like a God, or an angel of God. — Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, 8:347

Two great virtues . . . give a man power with the heavens – integrity and purity of character.  Let a man possess these, let his heart be true and unflinching, let his life be pure, and, if we add to these humility, he is protected against a multitude of weaknesses and can resist a host of temptations.  We all have our weaknesses; God has permitted them that we might be taught humility in ourselves and charity towards others. Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Wilford Woodruff, p. 105

We become what we want to be by consistently being what we want to become each day.  Righteous character is a precious manifestation of what you are becoming.  Righteous character is more valuable than any material object you own, any knowledge you have gained through study, or any goals you have attained no matter how well lauded by mankind.  In the next life your righteous character will be evaluated to assess how well you used the privilege of mortality. — Elder Richard G. Scott, October 2010 General Conference